|Glossary of Terms|
American Society for the Advancement of Project Management
asapm is a US-based not-for-profit professional society dedicated to advancing the project management discipline. Working with members, asapm provides the leadership for professional growth of both members and the profession. Enhancement of the profession benefits project practitioners, their respective organizations, and the project management community. asapm is working at the forefront of the project management discipline to push practices, procedures, and techniques to their best use.
|Active Learning||A learning principle that says participants learn more when they are actively involved in the process. Remember the saying “we learn more by doing”.|
|Agenda||A list, plan or outline of things to be done before, during and after the training. An agenda is the road map that will lead to the achievement of the learning objectives. Everyone needs a plan and wants to know where you are leading them.|
|Anecdote||A short story used to help illustrate a point.|
|Audio Visual Aids||
Training or educational materials directed at both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight. Materials that provide pictures and/or sounds to assist learning or teaching. Flip charts, overhead transparencies, graphical presentations, computer-based presentations, chalkboards, slide presentations, videos and films are just a few examples of audio-visual aids.
|Benchmark Measures||A set of measurements (metrics) that is used to establish goals for performance improvements. These are often derived from other firms that display "Best In Class" performance.|
|CAPM||The CAPM credential can benefit a wide range of team members who want to increase their performance and skills on project teams. By gaining knowledge of project management processes and terminology, professionals from all disciplines can reach higher levels of performance in their work.The CAPM is designed for:
Continuing Education Unit
The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) falls under the cognizance of the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET). Those organizations authorized to award CEUs for their courses must meet the criteria and quality assurance guidelines established by IACET. The Professional Development Unit (PDU) was established by PMI as the educational metric for project management educational activities. One PDU is earned for each contact hour spent in structured learning, which is relevant to project management. For conversion purposes, one (1) CEU equates to 10 PDUs
|CCR||The PMI Continuing Certification Requirements program (CCR) supports the ongoing educational and professional development of individuals who have attained the PMP and/or PgMP credential(s), hereafter referred to as “certificants”. The purpose of the CCR program is to:
|Computer-Based Training (CBT)||Interactive instructional experience between a computer and a learner in which the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the learner responds, resulting in progress toward increased skills or knowledge. Has a more complicated branching program of mediation and answering than CAI. Now an all-encompassing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including CD-ROM and the World Wide Web. Some people still use the term CBT to refer only to old-time text-only training.|
|Certification Governance Council (CGC)||The Certification Governance Council (CGC) will effectively support the PMI Board of Directors in identifying and supporting the implementation of the strategic objectives as specifically related to the Certification Program of the Institute.The CGC is an administratively independent structure within the Project Management Institute (PMI®) consisting of four (4) PMP members, one CAPM member and one (1) non-PMP public member representing the consumers of the services PMPs provide to their employers or clients. Additionally, PMI’s CEO and Certification Manager are Ex-Officio, non-voting Members.CGC Members are appointed by the PMI Board of Directors. The Chair, Vice-chair and Secretary of the CGC are elected from the members of the CGC on a yearly basis.
|Certified Project Manager (CPM)||
The International Project Management Association (IPMA) "Certificated Project Manager"(CPM) accreditation is reached through a competency based process. One is required to have extensive hands on experience in the management of projects. A 5- 8000 word Project Report, equivalent to a Master’s thesis, is the next milestone. If the Project Report satisfies an Evaluation Board then there is a personal appearance and interrogation by an accrediting Evaluation Board. The International Project Management Association (IPMA) has a career profile of four levels including certification of project managers. Certification of project managers has two senior levels, dependent on experience and competency, of Certificated Project Manager, and Certificated International Project Manager.
|Demographic Information||Things like the size of the audience, location of the presentation etc. may influence the effectiveness of the training.|
|Demonstration||A method for showing participants how to do a specific task or skill.|
|Discovery Learning||Students learn by doing and experiencing, rather than relying only on the instructor.|
|Distance Learning||Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy/andragogy, technology, and instructional systems design that are effectively incorporated in delivering education to students who are not physically "on site" to receive their education. Instead, teachers and students may communicate asynchronously (at times of their own choosing) by exchanging printed or electronic media, or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time (synchronously). Distance education courses that require a physical on-site presence for any reason including the taking of examinations is considered to be a hybrid or blended course or program.|
|Evaluation||Testing and comparing results.|
|Exercise||A structured experience in which the participants are involved.|
|Facilitator||A trainer who lets the group become responsible for the learning outcome. A facilitator helps the group learn by controlling the group process and allowing the group to work through problems and solutions together.|
|Feedback||Constructive information provided by the participants and/or the trainer.|
|Field Trip||A trip to a location outside the classroom to assist in learning more about a specific topic.|
|Fishbowl||A group process using a discussion group and an observer group.|
|Flip Chart||An easel with large sheets of paper for presenting or collecting written lists or ideas.|
|Handouts||A written summary of the presentation that is distributed to the audience before, during or after the presentation. Handouts will reinforce important information, summarize action items for the audience to follow up on and supply supporting data you don’t want to clutter your visual aids.|
|Ice Breaker||A quick game or exercise designed to get participants settled or mixing with each other.|
|Instructional Method||A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accomplishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led instructional strategy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a Socratic lecture technique, and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. Also called “method of instruction”.|
|Instructor||A person whose occupation is teaching (synonym) teacher (hypernym) educator, pedagogue (hyponym) art teacher (member-holonym) teacher-student relation (derivation) teach, learn, instruct|
The IPMA is the world’s oldest project management organisation. It is an international network of national project management societies. While these national societies serve the specific project management development needs of each country in its national language, the IPMA as an umbrella organisation represents them at the international level.
|Kaizen||Japanese for "change for the better" or "improvement", the English translation is "continuous improvement", or "continual improvement.") is an approach to productivity improvement originating in applications of the work of American experts such as Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Walter Shewhart, W. Edwards Deming and of the War Department's Training Within Industry program by Japanese manufacturers after World War II. The development of Kaizen went hand-in-hand with that of quality control circles, but it was not limited to quality assurance.|
|Knowledge Management||Knowledge Management (KM) refers to a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning across the organization.Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific outcomes such as shared intelligence, improved performance, competitive advantage, or higher levels of innovation. Knowledge transfer (one aspect of Knowledge Management) has always existed in one form or another, for example through on-the-job peer discussions, formal apprenticeship, corporate libraries, professional training, and mentoring programmes. However, since the late twentieth century — additional technology has been applied to this task, such as knowledge bases, expert systems, and knowledge repositories.|
|Learning||Knowledge acquired by systematic study in any field.|
|Lecturer||A one-way communication from the lecturer to the group.|
|LCD Projector||Electronic device that projects a computer image onto a wall or screen. It connects directly to a computer (typically laptop computers) to provide a professional looking presentation.|
A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have completed a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. An Enabling Learning Objective measures an element of the Terminal Learning Objective. Sometimes referred to as performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives.
|Learning Organization||The concept of the learning organization is that the successful organisation must — and does — continually adapt and learn in order to respond to changes in environment and to grow. This raises a range of scholarly and theoretical questions relating to what it means for an organisation to learn, and practical questions around what organisations need to do in order to learn and adapt.|
|Learning Style||Learning styles are different ways people can learn. It is commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information. Over 70 learning style models have been proposed, each consisting of at least two different styles. Psychologists and neuroscientists have questioned the scientific basis for most of these models and the theories on which they are based. A major report published in 2004 cast doubt on most of the main tests used to identify an individual's learning style.|
|Lesson Plan||A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. While there is no one way to construct a correct lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:the title of the lessonthe amount of time required to complete the lessona list of required materials a list of objectives. These may be stated as behavioral objectives (what the student is expected to be able to do upon completion of the lesson) or as knowledge objectives (what the student is expected to know upon completion of the lesson.the set or lead-in to the lesson. This is designed to focus students on the skill or concept about to be instructed. Common sets include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previously taught lessons.the instructional component. This describes the sequence of events which will take place as the lesson is delivered. It includes the instructional input—what the teacher plans to do and say, and guided practice—an opportunity for students to try new skills or express new ideas with the modeling and guidance of the teacher.independent practice. This component allows students to practice the skill or extend the knowledge on their own.the summary. This is an opportunity for the teacher to wrap up the discussion and for the students to pose unanswered questions.evaluation. Some, but not all, lessons have an evaluative component where the teacher can check for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts. This may take the form of a set of questions to be answered or a set of instructions to be followed. The evaluation may be formative; that is to say, used to guide subsequent learning, or summative; that is to say, used to determine a grade or other achievement criterion.analysis. Often not part of a lesson plan, this component allows the teacher to reflect on the lesson and answer questions such as what went well, what needs improving, and how students reacted to the lesson.|
|Life Long Learning||
Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning", a philosophy that has taken root in a whole host of different organizations. Lifelong learning is attitudinal; that one can and should be open to new ideas, decisions, skills or behaviors. Lifelong learning throws the axiom "You can't teach an old dog new tricks" out the door. Lifelong learning sees citizens provided with learning opportunities at all ages and in numerous contexts: at work, at home and through leisure activities, not just through formal channels such as school and higher education.
A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnaire (e.g. poor, fair, good, very good, excellent). Sometimes used on end of course evaluation. (smile sheets) For an ascending five point scale incremental values are assigned to each category and a mean figure for all the responses is calculated. (via the sum of the products of the categories' assigned value times the number of respondents for that category, divided by the total number of respondents) Example: Total number of respondents=25, assigned values are; poor=1, fair=2, good=3, very good=4, excellent=5; respondents selecting following categories are; good=9, very good=10, excellent=6. The quantitative mean = ((9*3)+(10*4)+(6*5))/25=3.9
A mentee is a professional who forms a planned partnership with a mentor over a specific period of time to reach specific professional or personal development goals.
A mentor is an experienced professional who forms an active helping relationship with a mentee. In this program, the relationship is a planned partnership over a specific period of time to help the mentee reach specific goals.
Mentoring is an opportunity to:
Benefits of Mentoring Programs
|Mind Map||A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. It is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, and decision making.It is an image-centered diagram that represents semantic or other connections between portions of information. By presenting these connections in a radial, non-linear graphical manner, it encourages a brainstorming approach to any given organizational task, eliminating the hurdle of initially establishing an intrinsically appropriate or relevant conceptual framework to work within.|
|Motivational||A learning principle that says participants learn best when they are motivated. The material must be meaningful and worthwhile to the participant not only to the trainer.|
|Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)||
A methodology and an instrument for identifying an individual's personality type based on Carl Jung's theory of personality preferences.
|Needs Assessment||Problem identification process that looks at the difference between "what is" and "what should be" for a particular situation. A systematic study that incorporates data and opinions from varied sources in order to create, install and evaluate educational and informational products and services. The effort commences as a result of a "hand-off" from performance analysis. Also known as training needs assessment, needs analysis, front end analysis, task and subject matter analysis.|
|Neuro-Linguistic programming ( NLP)||Developed in the 1970's by John Grinder, professor of linguistics, and John Bandler, a mathematician. They produced a set of 'hypothetical' rules for self-management and one-to-one communication. Many practitioners now apply these rules to education, training and development to allow learners to recognize their 'automatic' responses and behavior and apply strategies to control them.|
|Objective||A statement communicating the specific goals to be achieved.|
|Observer||Someone who watches a group process and gives feedback on it.|
|Off-the-Shelf||In finance When buying things, "Off the shelf" refers to products that have already been designed and made, compared to "made to measure" ("one-off", "custom-built", "custom made", etc.) which refers to products that have to be made to a special order.Off the shelf products are generally cheaper and more quickly available than made to measure.|
|On-the-Job-Training||Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes place in the actual work environment.|
The OPM3 certification process is a comprehensive program designed to elevate the application of OPM3 via certification, tools and services that increase the ability to help organizations achieve even greater value from OPM3 global standard.
Professional Development Unit
The PDU is a measure of time spent in a structured learning activity. For formalized learning activities, the course content should be consistent with the knowledge areas and processes as outlined by the PMBOK® Guide and involve appropriate expert resources. One (1) PDU is given for each hour of structured learning. Fractions of hours will be accepted in .25 increments. An activity or group of related activities must be a minimum of one full hour to be accepted. Ten minutes per each hour for breaks are permitted in programs that exceed one hour in length. Exceptions: Specified numbers of PDUs may also be earned for service to the profession and for specified professional activities.
|Performance Evaluation Tools||Competency tests that allow the trainer to profile the student's proficiency and identify weak areas so that training can be efficiently planned for the areas of most critical need.|
|PgMP||PMI’s new PgMP credential is specifically developed to enhance the qualifications of the professional who leads the coordinated management of multiple projects and ensures the ultimate success of a program. You will benefit from the many advantages of this new designation. Candidates who earn the PgMP credential will be internationally recognized as professionals with the knowledge and experience to make and implement the important decisions and accomplish the strategic objectives that enhance business results.|
|Piloting||Testing something before sending it to the target population. Questionnaires and examinations are normally piloted before they are used.|
Project Management Body of Knowledge
Project Management Institute (PMI) published the first PMBOK® in an attempt to document and standardize generally accepted project management information and practices. The current edition, the third edition copyright 2004, was released on October 31 2004 and provides a basic reference for Project Management. The PMBOK Guide is widely accepted to be the standard in project management.
The PMBOK is a collection of processes and knowledge areas generally accepted as best practice within the project management discipline. The PMBOK is an internationally recognised standard (IEEE Std 1490-2003) that provides the fundamentals of project management that are applicable to a wide range of projects, including construction, software, engineering, automotive, etc.
PMBOK recognizes 5 basic process groups and 9 knowledge areas typical of almost all projects. The basic concepts are applicable to projects, programs and operations. The five basic process groups are:
Processes overlap and interact throughout a project or phase. Processes are described in terms of:
Inputs (documents, plans, designs, etc.) Tools and Techniques (mechanisms applied to inputs) Outputs (documents, products, etc.)
|PMP||If you enjoy the prestige that comes from being the best in your field, then you’ll appreciate the professional advantages derived from attaining PMP status. A PMP credential grants an applicant with a globally recognized designation that serves as the foundation from which they can competently practice as a project manager leading and directing project tasks. PMPs are in tune with the latest trends in the project management profession. And they have demonstrated their commitment to the profession. The PMP designation following your name tells current and potential employers that you have a solid foundation of project management knowledge that can be readily applied in the workplace.|
A podcast is a media file which is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback on portable media players and personal computers. Like 'radio', it can mean both the content and the method of syndication. The latter may also be termed podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster. The term "podcast" is a portmanteau of the name of Apple's portable music player, the iPod, and broadcast; a pod refers to a container of some sort and the idea of broadcasting to a container or pod correctly describes the process of podcasting.
The systematic maintenance, improvement and broadening of knowledge and skills, and the development of personal qualities necessary for the execution of professional duties throughout working life.
Registered Education Provider
Types of REPs
An acting out of specific situations in front of, or with, the group to demonstrate ways to handle specific situations or problems.
Learning initiated and directed by the learner. Either for leisure learning or as a result of being informed that we may need additional knowledge for a job, or school. More and more training departments are developing courses that employees go through at their own pace. The term is used by some organizations now to include computer-based, web-based and multimedia training.
|Session||Any single presentation that deals with one specific topic. It may last from a few minutes to a few days depending upon the subject.|
|Simulation||An exercise designed to create a real-life atmosphere.|
A complex sequence of practical activities. A practical demonstration is essential when you are teaching a skill. Turning on a light, plugging in a vacuum cleaner, washing a window are examples of skills.
|Standard||rule or principle that is used as a basis for judgment. A road map that provides guidance and direction to lead us to an established objective or goal. Standards define the level of quality expected after an area or object has been cleaned. Standards represent the “measuring sticks” used in establishing productivity and performance guidelines.|
A process of gathering information to determine whether or not there is a training need. They are often used to collect information related to a Training Needs Analysis.
|Train||To make proficient by instruction and repeated practice, as in some art, profession or work. To discipline or instruct as in the performance of tasks. Designed to impart efficiency and proficiency. To prepare someone to accomplish an objective, task or job.|
|Training Need||The difference between what the employee can do now and what they are required to do in order to carry out their job effectively and efficiently.|
|Training Needs Analysis||
A training needs analysis is the method of determining if a training need exists and if it does, what training is required to fill the gap.
|Values||Answers the question, what is important to the group? Different organizations have different value systems. Even different departments within an organization can have different values.|
|Video Clip||A short section of video to visually help the participant learn.|
|Visual Aids||Supportive visual information used to enhance learning. The purpose of visual aids is to arouse and maintain interest, simplify instruction, accelerate learning and improve aid retention.|
|Training Needs Analysis||
A training needs analysis is the method of determining if a training need exists and if it does, what training is required to fill the gap.
Short for Web-based seminar, a presentation, lecture, workshop or seminar that is transmitted over the Web. A key feature of a Webinar is its interactive elements -- the ability to give, receive and discuss information. Contrast with Webcast, in which the data transmission is one way and does not allow interaction between the presenter and the audience.
|Webcast||To use the Internet to broadcast live or delayed audio and/or video transmissions, much like traditional television and radio broadcasts. For example, a university may offer on-line courses in which the instructor Webcasts a pre-recorded or live lecture, or an enterprise may Webcast a press conference in lieu of or in addition to a conference call. Users typically must have the appropriate multimedia application in order to view a Webcast.|
|White Board||A smooth white-surfaced board that can be written on with a special whiteboard marker.|
Training program where the participants learn by doing and interacting.